Table of Contents
Below is the full Table of Contents for Making Sharp Images.
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Introduction and overview of making sharp images.
Images can be unsharp for many different reasons.
- Banish Blur, or Blur for Beauty?
- Blur by Focus
- Blur by Autofocus Error
- Blur by Manual Focus Error
- Blur by Manual Focus Inconsistency
- Blur by Focus Shift
- Blur by Focus Lock and Recompose (FLR)
- Blur by Subject Movement
- Blur by Camera Movement
- Blur by Mirror Slap
- Blur Caused by System Alignment
- Blur Caused by Image Stabilization
- Blur from Haze and Refraction
- Blur Caused by Lens Optics
- Blur and Haze from Spherical Aberration
- Blur by Purple Fringing (Axial Chromatic Aberration)
- Blur by Red/Cyan Fringes (Lateral Chromatic Aberration)
- Blur Caused by the Laws of Optics (Diffraction)
- Blur by Depth of Field
- Blur from Field Curvature
- Resolving to Sensor Resolution
- Blur Caused by Anti-Aliasing Filter
- Blur Caused by Digital Capture
- Blur Caused by Demosaicing
How a lens blurs when out of focus is a Big Deal.
Focusing is more complicated than it first appears.
- Focusing Overview
- Autofocus Tips
- Fine Tune Autofocus for Each Lens
- Bracket Your Focus
- Check Your Camera
- Focus Fast Lenses Stopped Down
- Use Focus Assist (Electronic Rangefinder)
- Hedge Your Bet By Stopping Down
- Use Supplementary Light
- Focusing Aids
- Rangefinder Focusing Aids
- Use a Different Focusing Screen
- Use a High Contrast Target
- Check your Diopter Setting
- Check Your Eyes and Your Accuracy
Focusing accuracy and errors.
- Focus Bracketing with a 15mm Lens on Nikon D800E
- Autofocus Error with Nikon 24mm f/1.4G
- Autofocus Consistency With Canon/Nikon 35mm f/1.4
- Focus Assist Error (Electronic Rangefinder), Nikon D3x
- Contrast Detect Autofocus Error, Nikon D800E
- Focus Bracketing Study (Canon 5D Mark III, 40mm f/2.8 STM)
- Autofocus Error with Leica S2
- Field Confirmation of Autofocus Error with Leica S2
- Rangefinder Focus Error With Leica M9 and Zeiss Lenses
- Rangefinder Focus Error With Brand-new Lens
- Rangefinder Focus Error With Leica M9 + 50/1.4 Summilux
- Focus Bracketing Study (Nikon D800 / Leica 100/2.8 APO)
Using your camera’s mirror lockup, self timer, and Live View features.
- How to Hold a Camera Steady (Mass Coupling)
- How to Press the Shutter Release
- Mirror Lockup and Remote Release for Sharper Photos
- Self Timer and Mirror Delay
- Key Aspects of Tripod Stability
- Live View Overview
- Alternatives to Live View
- Using Mirror Lockup With Canon DSLRs
- Live View Settings With Canon DSLRs
- Step-by-step Live View for Canon
- Canon Silent Shoot Mode for Zero Vibration
- Mirror Lockup and Self Timer on Nikon
- Using Live View With Nikon DSLRs
- Step-by-step Live View for Nikon
- Mirror Slap in Live View Mode on Nikon
- Seven Things Nikon Could Fix or Improve for Sharper Images
Digital capture technology is discrete, and not the same as film.
- Blur by Bayer Pattern Demosaicing
- Resolution with Color Sensor vs Monochrome Sensor
- Blur from Anti Aliasing Filters
- Reducing Aliasing with Diffraction
- Blur Inherent to Digital Capture
- Resolving to the Sensor Resolution
- Are More Pixels Better?
- Are More Pixels Better at High ISO?
- Oversampling for High Image Quality (Sony NEX-7)
- Future Cameras and Lenses
- Photosite Sizes of Various Cameras
Making image captures look sharp.
Sharpness issues related to camera and lens tolerances and build quality.
How to verify a good sample and assess all aspects of lens performance.
- My Approach to Testing a New Lens
- Know Your Goals
- General Issues
- Choosing a Test Scene for Evaluating Sharpness
- Focus Targets
- Focusing Accuracy When Testing
- Testing and Adjusting Autofocus Accuracy
- Eliminating Camera Movement when Testing
- Ruling Out Camera/Sensor Alignment
- Checking for a Good Sample
- Comparing Lenses
- Testing for Focus Shift and Secondary Color
- Testing for Field Curvature
- Testing for Lateral Chromatic Aberration
- Testing for Axial Chromatic Aberration
- Testing for Bokeh
- Testing for Autofocus Accuracy
- Testing for distortion
- Testing for Flare
- Downloadable High-Res Ruler Target
Controlling the zone of sharp detail.
Getting peak performance from your lens
Zone of focus, not plane of focus
Actual example of field curvature.
Elusive sharpness, depending on aperture
Focus shift with a variety of lenses.
- Focus Shift: Nikon 14-24/2.8G and 24-70/2.8G
- Focus Shift with the Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8G (Early Tests)
- Focus Shift Over the Frame, Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8G (Cabin)
- Mitigating Focus Shift In the Field, Nikon 14-24/2.8G (Cottonwood Canyon Cabin)
- Focus Shift with 28mm Lenses
- Examples of Focus Shift with 50mm Lenses
- Focus Shift: Canon 50mm f/1.2L (Dolls)
Understanding resolution and contrast graphs.
- MTF Introduction
- Fantasy Land MTF
- Reading MTF Charts
- MTF Measurement vs Field Curvature
- MTF and Sensor Size
- Lateral Chromatic Aberration and Astigmatism
- Zeiss MTF Examples
- Leica MTF Examples
- Leica MTF Analysis / Summilux, Elmarit, Elmar 24mm
- Leica MTF For Leica 35/1.4 Summilux-M ASPH
- Canon MTF Examples
- Nikon MTF Examples
Understanding the various optical aberrations and behaviors.
- Point Spread Function
- Lateral Chromatic Aberration (Color Fringing)
- Correcting Lateral Chromatic Aberration During RAW Conversion
- Axial/Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration (LOCA / Purple Fringing)
- Correcting Axial/Longitudinal/LOCA Chromatic Aberration During RAW Conversion
- Secondary Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration (Color Bokeh)
- Spherical Aberration
- Spherochromaticism (Spherical Aberration by Color)
- Cat’s Eye Effect
Illuminating examples of lens behavior.
- Leica 50mm f/0.95 Noctilux-M ASPH Aberrations
- Lens Skew (Nikon D800E, Sigma 35/1.4)
- Asymmetric Sharpness with Leica 180mm f/3.5 APO-Elmar-S
- Lens Asymmetry/Blur With Fuji X100
- Lens Asymmetry/Blur With Sony NEX-7 + 24mm ƒ/1.8 Sonnar
- Filters: Loss of Image Contrast With a Polarizer (Zeiss 35/1.4 Distagon)
How to choose a camera, lenses, and the other stuff that’s worthwhile.
Research into sharpness of handheld images with and without image stabilization
Stability of tripods and ballheads, controlling camera vibration, selecting equipment.
- Overview of Tripod Stability
- Tripod vibration and resonance
- Mirror lockup vs Exposure Delay, focal length
- Shutter Speed and Critical Sharpness on a Tripod
- Sharpness on Light/Medium/Heavy Tripods
- Sharpness with Mirror Lockup, Exposure Delay, VR
- Shooting Technique: Steadying the Lens
- Tripod Performance for Burst Shooting
- Tripod Collars: Wimpy or Strong
- General Conclusions on Tripods/Shooting